№ 3 (43), 2022

Academic journal “Eurasian Union: Issues of International Relations”. Volume 11, Issue 3 (43), 2022


  • Trunov I.L. International Sanctions Policy from the Position of the Rule of Law
  • Abramova M.A., Goncharova G.S., Kostyuk V.G. The Attitude of the Russian Government to Eurasianism: the Evolution of Approaches, Results and Prospects
  • Menshikov P.V., Vilchinskii A.S. Catalan Problem in the Image of Spain
  • Volkov A.V. The Eurasian Olympic Games as a Way for Russia and China to Abandon Western Hegemony in International Sports


  • Gustyr A.A. Comparative Analysis of Russian and Chinese Soft Power in the 2013-2017 Period
  • Tretyakova N.A. Economics of terrorism

Our authors № 3-2022

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.43.3.001

I.L. TRUNOV Doctor of Judicial Science (S.J.D.), Professor, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Honorable Lawyer of Russia, The President of the Union of Lawyers of Russia, Deputy Chairman of the International Union of lawyers, Moscow, Russia


Analysis of international sanctions policy from the standpoint of law. What are the consequences of sanctions for states and sanctioned persons and how this relates to constitutional and legal principles.

International conflicts take the form of sanctions against states, legal entities and individual citizens, but as it is regulated by international law. The sanctions policy of pressure that leads to discrimination, creates the prerequisites for hunger and the deterioration of the health care system, is unacceptable and should be regulated by humanitarian law, as well as the rules of war.

The author, using the example of individual states, gives examples of the application of sanctions, their goals and objectives, as well as their consequences. Among the international sanctions campaigns, the largest one is against Russia and Russians. 10, 128 sanctions have been imposed against citizens of Russia and the Russian Federation. And this number is growing. Arrests of bank accounts, cryptocurrencies, houses, apartments (and all property located in apartments and houses), yachts, planes, paintings, jewelry, etc., owned mainly by businessmen, journalists and officials. The article uses primary sources cited by the author.

Key words: International sanctions policy, confiscation of assets, humanitarian law, economic sanctions, financial restrictions, United Nations Security Council, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, protection of state interests, protection of human rights, constitutional protection of commercial transactions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.43.3.002

M.A. ABRAMOVA Doctor of Sciences (Education), Leading Researcher, Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Leading Researcher, Head of the Department Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

G.S. GONCHAROVA Employee of the Institute of Philosophy and Law Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia

V.G. KOSTYUK PhD in Philosophy, Employee of the Institute of Philosophy and Law Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia


Eurasianism, as a complex complex system of worldviews, socio-philosophical, political, and geopolitical teachings in this period evolved from classical Eurasianism (understanding Russia as a Eurasian civilization) to neo-Eurasianism (including Greater Eurasia as a Euro-Asian continent and even wider). In the context of the formation of a new geopolitical picture of the world, the analysis of the specifics of the perception of Eurasianism becomes relevant not so much as a historical and philosophical concept, but as the basis for the formation and theoretical and political justification of Russia's domestic and foreign policy. The use of content analysis of fundamental documents (concepts, strategies, plans) of the activities of the state authorities of the Russian Federation in the field of national and foreign policy in 1990-2022. It allowed us to show the evolution of the ideological and political approaches of the authorities to the possibility of using the potential of Eurasianism in the transformation of the political, economic, and cultural system of Russia in international relations. Correlations of the trend of evolutions of Eurasianism as a socio-humanitarian science and the evolution of approaches of the Russian government are traced. The analysis of the main results of activities in the Eurasian context in the spheres of foreign and national policy is carried out. The conclusion is made about the illusory use of the idea of Greater Eurasia as a way of integrating Russian and Western civilizations in this period. It is promising to strengthen Russia's position as a Eurasian civilization with China, India, and the countries of Central Asia. The authors believe that it is necessary to clearly formulate their position on the place and role of Eurasianism (classical and neo) in the idea of a future Russia, which is advisable to display in the documents regulating domestic and foreign policy. To do this, it is advisable to conduct a dialogue between the public and the authorities.

Key words: Eurasia, Eurasianism, Russian civilization, concepts and strategies of the Russian government, integration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.43.3.003

P.V. MENSHIKOV Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Media Policy and Public Relations of the Faculty of International Journalism, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University), Moscow, Russia

A.S. VILCHINSKII Post-Graduate Student of the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Expert of the Institute for Contemporary International Studies, Moscow, Russia


The article is devoted to the analysis of Spain's image after the escalation of the Catalan crisis in the wake of the illegal referendum held in the region in 2017. The main purpose of the paper is to assess the impact the deterioration of relations between the central government and Catalonia had on the perception of Spain. In order to carry out the research the authors used analytical reports on the dynamics of the image of Spain, prepared by the Royal Elcano Institute annually. As a result, it was revealed that the conceptual basis of the image policy of Spain is flexible. Currently, the main tool for creating a positive image is the promotion of the Spanish language in the world. In addition, the article also reveals differences in the perception of Spain by its residents and citizens of other countries. The authors underscore that the Catalan crisis posed a threat to the image of the Kingdom due to the negative information background that accompanied the Spanish government's response to the illegal referendum. The article concludes that the Catalan crisis has not caused serious damage to the image of Spain. The vast majority of the European Union citizens have not changed their perception of the country.

Key words: Spain, Catalonia, referendum, image, perception, information space.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.43.3.004

A.V. VOLKOV PhD student, lecturer-researcher, Faculty of Global Processes Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia


The article is devoted to the issues of support and full realization of the potential of Russian elite sport in the face of unprecedented Western sanctions pressure and the search for alternatives to international competitions for athletes not only from Russia, but also from such main allies of the country as, for example, China. On the example of the sports potential of Russia and China, including due to the large number of champions and victories regularly won at international competitions, their universal recognition, the possibility of creating an alternative version of a sports mega-event with a focus directly on Russia and the possibility of attracting audiences from allied states is considered. The possibilities and shortcomings of the national, federal and regional sports events currently existing in Russia are analyzed, in the conditions of the so-called. "Import substitution policy" due to Western discrediting of the country, and the possibility of expanding their formats. Based on the analyzed existing experience, the idea of forming the Euro-Asian Games is proposed, the possible mechanism of their work is described in detail, recommendations on the formats of the competitions, the key organizational moments of such an event are indicated. It is concluded that the new format can contribute to the replacement of politicized international events and that this idea will be able to realize the possibilities of greater popularization of high-performance sports in the country and foreign allied states, taking into account their use as a tool for Russia and China to abandon Western hegemony in international sports.

Key words: sports, Russia, China, sanctions, tournament, competitions, Euro-Asian Games, Goodwill Games, allies, audience, soft power, image, sports champions, popularization, development.


DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.43.3.005

A.A. GUSTYR Master of International Relations, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University), Moscow, Russia


The article examines the “sharp” character specific to Russian soft power, which it acquired after 2013, analyses the tools for its implementation, and compares the content, direction and broadcasting channels of Russian soft power with those of China. Based on the analysis, the conclusion is made about the similarity of methods and goals in Russian and Chinese soft power; however, it is noted that the more conventional nature of Chinese soft power reduces its toxicity to local actors and thereby increases its effectiveness and attractiveness.

Key words: soft power, sharp power, positioning, Russia, China.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.43.3.006

N.A. TRETYAKOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia


In the article, the author examines one of the most high-profile and topical problems of the modern world that threaten the well-being of mankind. Terrorist activity today poses a danger to various areas of public life, manifests itself on a variety of scales, but it is especially acute in the economy of States. The relevance of the study is due to processes that cannot remain unnoticed by the world community: the terrorist threat has existed and continues to exist. The importance of this topic will become all the more obvious against the background of the expected economic crisis, possibly also socio-political in connection with the ongoing world events that create a vulnerable situation for a number of states. The threat is presented on a global scale, it remains extremely acute, which is why it was chosen as a subject for research by many modern specialists. Terrorism as a socio-political phenomenon has been studied for many years, however, its consequences change, corresponding to the passage of time. The author considers the purpose of the article to be the study of terrorism in modern interstate relations, the causes of its occurrence and the sources of its existence. In the course of the research, the author refers to Russian and international studies analyzing the impact of terrorism on the world economy. It also examines the manifestation of terrorism at the level of States and the world arena, the main actors of terrorist activity, the brightest examples from world history and their legal and economic analysis. The research resulted in the author's conclusions and statistical data on the economic components of terrorism in the global budget, the countries most affected by terrorist acts, and the methods of financing terrorism.

Key words: terrorism, political terrorism, international terrorism, political system, international threat, international law, national security, modern threats, economics, budget.